Evolution, 1928, Vol. 10 PDF ePub eBook

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Evolution, 1928, Vol. 10 free pdf Excerpt from Evolution, 1928, Vol. 10: A Journal of Nature Many years ago I made a critical study of tooth form In relation to race. The most obvious variations in human teeth occur in the upper central incisors. Examination of over one thousand specimens from all parts of the world showed wide and marked variations in all races, with only vague indications of racial peculiarities. Arranging these teeth according to the most striking peculiarities and resemblances it soon became apparent that there are three very distinct forms of human central incisors. Class 1, with sides parallel for more than half their length- Class 2, with sides rapidly converging from the cutting edge toward the root- Class 3, with a double curve on one, and sometimes on both sides. The great majority are various blendings of these typed forms, but in most teeth one or the other is clearly dominant. An examination of the skulls in the large collection of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of London showed all three of these types of teeth in every racial group. The racial types of teeth which I had expected to find were non-existent. Instead, all races have three types of teeth, with certain minor racial variations. Subsequent study in other large museums and more than fifteen years experience in the examination of teeth in the mouths of living people have established this discovery beyond a doubt. These same three types of teeth, even more strongly marked in their leading characteristics, are found in the gorilla, the orang-utan and the chimpanzee. As yet these variations have not been found in the teeth of any other animals. These facts have a direct bearing on the controversy now in progress as to the pre-human ancestors of man. The accompanying photographs illustrate these statements. Figures 1, 2 and 3 are taken from three skulls of Sandwich Islanders. The first exhibits teeth of Class I, having proximal sides that are nearly parallel for more than half their length. The teeth in the second are of the tapering sort, Class II, characterized by sharply converging lines and consequently by wide interdental spaces. The third shows the double curved line on the distal proximal surface. Class III, also with wide interdental spaces. I have similar sets of photographs of Australian, Ancient Egyptian, Kaffir, Chinese, African, New Hebridean, Hindoo, Spanish, German, Javanese, Fiji Islander, Italian, Tasmanian and others. They all prove conclusively that there is no single form of tooth characteristic of race. For half a century it was taught in college text books that certain forms of teeth are peculiar to certain temperaments. There is not the slightest foundation in fact for this teaching. All peoples, ancient and modern, have three types of teeth. Furthermore, the previously held views that there is some particular tooth form characteristic of the anthropoid apes, has no foundation whatever in fact. They have the three types of teeth that we find in all human races, with even more strongly marked or bold characteristics. The accompanying illustrations, figures 4, 5 and 6 show all three types of teeth perfectly represented in the orang-utan. Studies of the gorilla and the chimpanzee show the same three tooth types. How closely they resemble human teeth is shown by figures 7 and 8, showing teeth of Sandwich Islander and Gorilla. The left central incisor of the gorilla was lost. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

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Details Book

Author : Unknown Author
Publisher : Forgotten Books
Data Published : 27 September 2015
ISBN : 1330322452
EAN : 9781330322451
Format Book : PDF, Epub, DOCx, TXT
Number of Pages : 22 pages
Age + : 15 years
Language : English
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  • Evolution, 1928, Vol. 10 free pdfEvolution, 1928, Vol. 10

    . Excerpt from Evolution, 1928, Vol. 10: A Journal of Nature Many years ago I made a critical study of tooth form In relation to race. The most obvious variations in human teeth occur in the upper cen