The Theory of the Imaginary in Geometry PDF ePub eBook

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The Theory of the Imaginary in Geometry free pdf THE word theory in the title is to be understood in a very non-technical sense. Indeed, apart from the idea of the invariant elements of an elliptic involution on a straight line, no theory is found at all. The purpose of the book is rather to furnish a certain graphical representation of imaginaries under a number of conventions more or less well known. Three concepts run through the work: first, an incompletely defined idea of the nature of an imaginary- second, the analogy with the geometry of reals- third, the use of coordinate methods, assuming the algebra of imaginaries. Given a real point "O" and a real constant "k," an imaginary point "P" is defined by the equation "OP2 = -k - 2." The two imaginary points "P" and "P'" are the double points of an involution having "O" for center, and "ik" for parameter. The algebra of imaginaries is now assumed, and a geometry of imaginary distances on a straight line is built upon it. The reader is repeatedly reminded that in themselves there is no difference between real and imaginary points- that differences exist solely in their relations to other points. In the extension to two dimensions both "x" and "ix" are plotted on a horizontal line, while "x" and "xy "are plotted on a vertical line. Imaginary lines are dotted, and points having one or both coordinates imaginary are enclosed by parentheses, but otherwise the same figures are used for proofs, either by the methods of elementary geometry, or by coordinate methods. In the algebra of segments it is shown that an imaginary distance "O'D'" can be expressed in the form "iOD," wherein "OD" is a real segment, or at most by "OD" times some number. Now follows a long development of the extension of cross ratios, etc., to imaginaries. In fact every word of this is found implicitly in any treatment of the invariance of cross ratios under linear fractional transformation. In Chapter II the conic with a real branch is introduced, beginning with involutions of conjugate points on lines having imaginary points on the conic. If the coefficients in the equation of a circle are real, the usual graph of "x2 y2 = a2" for real "x" and real "y" is followed by replacing "y" by "iy," then proceeding as before. The former locus is called the (1, 1) branch, and the latter the (1, "i") branch of the circle. Similarly, it has a "(i," 1) branch, and another, "(i, i) ," but the latter has no graph. This idea is applied in all detail to ellipses, hyperbolas, and parabolas- in the case of the central conies it is also followed by replacing rectangular coordinates by a pair of conjugate diameters. The ordinary theorems of poles and polars, and the theorems of Pascal, Brianchon, Desargues, Carnot are shown to apply. Indeed, after having established the applicability of cross ratios in the earlier chapters, all these proofs can be applied in the same manner as to reals, without changing a word.... -An excerpt from "Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society," Vol. 27 [1921]

About J L S Hatton

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Details Book

Author : J L S Hatton
Publisher : Createspace
Data Published : 15 July 2015
ISBN : 1515094162
EAN : 9781515094166
Format Book : PDF, Epub, DOCx, TXT
Number of Pages : 226 pages
Age + : 15 years
Language : English
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